See Perspectives on Regional Australia: Non-school Qualifications in Regions, 2011 for a summary of non-school (Higher than Year 12 including vocational & university) qualifications in Australia. You can download the Excel Spreadsheet that contains the data at Statistical Area Level 4 (SA4). Large regional city labour markets (150,000 people) are generally defined by a single SA4, so Townsville, Cairns, Mackay and other towns are described at this level, Brisbane and its surrounding area is divided into several Statistical Areas at Level 4. See this description of the Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS) to learn more about Statistical Area Levels.
Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2013). Perspectives on Regional Australia: Non-school Qualifications in Regions, 2011 (No. 1380.0.55.011). Retrieved from http://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/DetailsPage/1380.0.55.0112011?OpenDocument