Thursday, October 6, 2011

APA referencing: "Where" element clarified

The last generic element in an APA reference is where a reader should go to locate the reference you used.

Periodicals
For journals, newsletters, and magazines, the primary locator element is the volume number. It goes after the periodical’s title, in italics, and the article’s page range follows:

Elk, A. (1972a). My theory on brontosauruses. Journal of the All-England Summarize Proust Competition, 31, 12–27.

If the journal is one that restarts the page numbering at 1 for each issue, include the issue number in parentheses after the volume number. Note that if the issue number is used, it is in roman (i.e., not italic) type, as is the comma following it.

Elk, A. (1972b). The other theory on brontosauruses. Journal of the All-England Summarize Proust Competition, 31(4), 47–50.

Books, Reports, and So Forth
Give the name and location of the publisher (city and state or, outside the United States - city and country) for books, reports, brochures, and other nonperiodical publications.

Gumby, T. F. (1972). The brain specialist. Cambridge, England: Python.

Note that the name of the publisher is given in as brief a form as possible. Eliminate words such as Publishers, Co., and Inc., and use only the surname for publishing houses that are named after persons (e.g., Erlbaum, not Lawrence Erlbaum; Wiley, not John Wiley). The names of universities, associations, and so forth are given in full.

The “well-known city rule” is no longer in effect, so the state (or country, for non-U.S. publishers) is included for all publishers. However, there is one exception to this rule: If the publisher is a university whose name includes the name of the state, don’t repeat the state in the publisher location.

Clark, D. T., Schoomaker, P. J. How not to be seen. Tampa: University of Florida.

Electronic Sources
The digital object identifier (DOI) is the new gold standard for locating electronic publications. Through the magic of international concordats and computer programming, it will get you to the online version of the article every time, even if the publisher has changed Web addresses. Check out this DOI primer and handy flowchart for guidance on when to use DOI versus URL. You may also want to check out Paige's discussion of document URL versus homepage URL.

From the APA Style Blog by Jeff Hume-Pratuch

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